Library Articles

Infectious Diseases

  • Feline panleukopenia (FPL), sometimes also called feline distemper, is caused by a virus of the parvovirus family known as feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV). The virus is present in all excretions, particularly the feces, of infected cats. A susceptible cat can be infected by direct contact with an infected cat, or the virus can be transferred via contaminated water, food bowls, or on shoes and clothing. Clinical signs include rough or dry haircoat, dehydration, depression or listlessness, and collapse. If the gastrointestinal tract is affected, vomiting and diarrhea occur frequently. If the cat receives aggressive supportive care through the initial stages of illness, the prognosis for a full recovery is good. Fortunately, excellent vaccines are available and are part of the core feline vaccination program.

  • Feline upper respiratory infection (URI) is one term for a respiratory infection caused by one or more viral or bacterial agents. Synonyms for this condition include feline infectious respiratory disease and feline upper respiratory disease complex (URD).

  • Usually caused by a bite from another cat, fight wound infections can lead to the development of an abscess (a pocket of pus) or cellulitis (pain and swelling in the area of the bite). A cat’s sharp canine teeth can easily puncture the skin of another cat, leaving small, deep, wounds that seal over quickly, so it is important that your cat is seen by a veterinarian for treatment as soon as possible after being bitten.

  • Flea and tick prevention consists of a variety of products used to control flea and/or tick infestations on your pet and to prevent infestations inside the home. Fleas and ticks can be found worldwide. Fleas can live in many climate zones, but they prefer humid and shady areas, such as under leaf litter. Ticks can also live in many climate zones, and prefer humid and shady environments, especially areas with woods, shrubs, weeds, and tall grasses. Prevention is key to avoid infestations in your home, severe allergic reactions (in both pets and people), and to prevent disease. Many flea and tick preventives are available. Your veterinarian will help you find an appropriate product that works best for your and your pet.

  • Giardiasis is an intestinal infection in humans and animals, caused by a microscopic protozoan parasite. The parasite occurs worldwide and is a common cause of "Traveler's Diarrhea" in people. Outdoor enthusiasts who inadvertently consume contaminated water may develop "beaver fever", which is another name for giardiasis in people.

  • Heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) are a blood-borne parasite that reside in the heart or adjacent large blood vessels of infected animals. Recent studies of cats with heart and respiratory diseases have found an incidence of heartworms that is far greater than previously thought. Veterinarians now strongly recommend that all cats receive year-round monthly heartworm preventives. There are excellent heartworm preventives now available for cats, making prevention of heartworm disease safe and easy.

  • Heartworms are blood-borne parasites that reside in the heart or adjacent large blood vessels of infected animals. There is no drug approved for treating heartworms in cats and surgical removal is generally the best option. Veterinarians now strongly recommend that all cats receive year-round monthly heartworm preventative in areas where mosquitoes are active all year round. Cats that live in colder areas, where mosquitoes are seasonal, should be given monthly preventives for at least six months of the year.

  • Heartworm disease is serious and potentially life-threatening to dogs. Treatment involves several components to combat potential bacterial infection, kill the heartworm larvae (microfilaria), kill the adult heartworms, and then test to confirm successful treatment. Complete rest for a dog undergoing treatment is essential. The prognosis for dogs after heartworm treatment is generally good if the pet owner follows all veterinary recommendations closely.

  • Hepatozoonosis in dogs is caused by ingestion of one of two organisms: H. americanum and H. canis. Both parasites are more common in the southern United States. The clinical sign and treatments for dogs with hepatozoonosis differ depending on the parasite species causing the infection. In either case, with appropriate treatment, the prognosis is generally good.

  • Canine herpesvirus, or canine herpes, is a systemic, often fatal disease of puppies caused by the canine herpes virus. It may remain latent in tissues after a dog is infected and may be passed on to other dogs, particularly to fetuses developing in the mother's uterus. Clinical signs in puppies include difficulty breathing, nasal discharge, anorexia, soft stools, crying, seizures, and sudden death. Symptoms in adult dogs include coughing and sneezing, miscarriage, lesions on the external genitalia, conjunctivitis, and corneal ulcers. The disease may be prevented by avoiding contact with infected dogs. Pregnant dogs should be isolated to prevent infection.